I needed to install the exchange 2010 management tools on a windows 2012 R2 server to support some o365 migration software. I was able to follow the information below to get it installed once I added a few more steps for windows 2012 R2.
First you need the AD DS and AD LDS tools for windows 2012 R2 enabled and IIS 6 Management Compatibility. To get those installed i used
Open the Control Panel, click on Programs and then click on Turn Windows Features On or Off. Enable the features shown here.
Download the Exchange Server 2010 SP1 installation files and extract them to a temporary folder on your computer. From that folder launch Setup.exe. If your computer is missing either the .NET Framework or Windows PowerShell pre-requisites there will be links for Step 1 and 2 to download and install them.